Rotator cuff tears are a growing problem within orthopedics as the incidence increases within an aging population, and repair of these tears has been estimated to save society approximately $ 3.4 Billion per year.PRP-and-Allografts-in-Rotator-Cuff-Repairs-Feb-2018
The present invention relates to a method of freeze drying, in particular to the
freeze drying of cell based biological material and subsequent reconstitution. The
biological material may be from any source such as microbial cells, protozoal
cells, animal cells or plant cells. In particular the invention relates to freeze
drying mammalian cells, such as blood cells, nucleated cells and bacterial cells
for therapeutic use and use in food products. The invention further provides a
method of reconstitution of the freeze dried cells resulting in better viability and
functionality of the cells after reconstitution.
The mesenchymal stroma harbors an important population of cells that possess stem cell-like characteristics
including self renewal and differentiation capacities and can be derived from a variety of different sources. These
multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can be found in nearly all tissues and are mostly located in perivascular
niches. MSC have migratory abilities and can secrete protective factors and act as a primary matrix for tissue
regeneration during inflammation, tissue injuries and certain cancers.
These functions underlie the important physiological roles of MSC and underscore a significant potential for the
clinical use of distinct populations from the various tissues. MSC derived from different adult (adipose tissue,
peripheral blood, bone marrow) and neonatal tissues (particular parts of the placenta and umbilical cord) are
therefore compared in this mini-review with respect to their cell biological properties, surface marker expression
and proliferative capacities. In addition, several MSC functions including in vitro and in vivo differentiation capacities
within a variety of lineages and immune-modulatory properties are highlighted. Differences in the extracellular
milieu such as the presence of interacting neighbouring cell populations, exposure to proteases or a hypoxic
microenvironment contribute to functional developments within MSC populations originating from different
tissues, and intracellular conditions such as the expression levels of certain micro RNAs can additionally balance
MSC function and fate.
The present study investigated the antimicrobial activity of human amniotic and chorionic membranes
against some common bacterial and fungal pathogens. The findings clearly demonstrated the antimicrobial
effect of both the amniotic and chorionic membranes against the tested bacterial and fungal pathogens at
different dilutions by their maximum and minimum inhibitory zones. The maximum inhibition zone was
measured in amniotic membrane compared to chorionic membrane in both the bacterial and fungal activity
plates. While assessing the four different dilutions (5X105, 5X106, 5X107 and 5X108), the similar diameter of
inhibition zone was observed in 1.5X105 and 1.5X106 dilutions. The study clearly confirmed the antimicrobial
activity effect of both amniotic and chorionic membranes against several bacterial and fungal pathogens
in which maximum activity was recorded by amniotic membrane.
We reviewed the background information and previous clinical studies that considered the use of allogeneic
amniotic tissue and fluid (granulized amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid) in the treatment of chronic
diabetic foot wounds. This innovation represents a relatively new approach to wound management by
delivering a unique allograft of live human cells in a nonimmunogenic structural tissue matrix. Developed to
fill soft tissue defects and bone voids and to convey antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory capabilities,
granulized amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid does not require fetal death, because its procurement is
performed with maternal consent during birth. In the present investigation, 20 chronic wounds (20 patients)
that had been treated with standard wound therapy for a mean of 36.6 31.58 weeks and with a mean
baseline area of 10.15 19.54 cm2 were followed up during a 12-week observation period or until they healed.
A total of 18 of the wounds (90%) healed during the 12-week observation period, and none of the wounds
progressed to amputation. From our experience with the patients in the present case series, we believe that
granulized amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid represents a useful option for the treatment of chronic
diabetic foot wounds.
The amniotic membrane (AM) and amniotic fluid (AF) have a long history of use in surgical and prenatal diagnostic applications,
respectively. In addition, the discovery of cell populations in AM and AF which are widely accessible, nontumorigenic and capable
of differentiating into a variety of cell types has stimulated a flurry of research aimed at characterizing the cells and evaluating
their potential utility in regenerative medicine. While a major focus of research has been the use of amniotic membrane and fluid
in tissue engineering and cell replacement, AM- and AF-derived cells may also have capabilities in protecting and stimulating
the repair of injured tissues via paracrine actions, and acting as vectors for biodelivery of exogenous factors to treat injury and
diseases. Much progress has been made since the discovery of AM and AF cells with stem cell characteristics nearly a decade ago,
but there remain a number of problematic issues stemming from the inherent heterogeneity of these cells as well as inconsistencies
in isolation and culturing methods which must be addressed to advance the field towards the development of cell-based therapies.
Here, we provide an overview of the recent progress and future perspectives in the use of AM- and AF-derived cells for therapeutic